Theoretical and Natural Science

Theoretical and Natural Science

TNS Vol.2 (CIAP 2022), 02 February 2023

Open Access | Article

On the Copenhagen Interpretation and Its Alternative Theories

Haiwen Zhang 1
1 Shanghai Pinghe School, Shanghai, China, 200023

* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Theoretical and Natural Science, TNS Vol.2 (CIAP 2022), 133-138
Published 02 February 2023. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by EWA Publishing
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Citation Haiwen Zhang. On the Copenhagen Interpretation and Its Alternative Theories. TNS (2023) TNS Vol.2 (CIAP 2022): 133-138.


Quantum mechanics has become the rising trend in modern physics and has completely changed people’s views of physics. This essay delves into the once-existing problems underlying quantum mechanics such as the conflict between substantiality and completeness in quantum mechanics and the relationship between causality and observation and analyzes the solutions to the controversies. The Copenhagen Interpretation is widely considered the most orthodox explanation of quantum mechanics; therefore, this paper focuses on the Copenhagen Interpretation and examines how it delicately manages to explain quantum mechanics. It also examines its alternative theories, such as Einstein’s local hidden variable theory, and disproves them with Bell’s inequality and other reasonings. The essay aims to clarify and systematize the historical development of quantum mechanics, showing the current progress of quantum mechanics.


Bell’s inequality, Substantiality and Completeness, Delayed-choice experiment, Causality and Observation, Quantum mechanics, Copenhagen interpretation


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Data Availability

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study will be available from the authors upon reasonable request.

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